# Random measurement error and the replication crisis: A statistical analysis

This is a draft of a commentary on Loken and Gelman’s Science article “Measurement error and the replication crisis. Comments are welcome.

Random Measurement Error Reduces Power, Replicability, and Observed Effect Sizes After Selection for Significance

Ulrich Schimmack and Rickard Carlsson

In the article “Measurement error and the replication crisis” Loken and Gelman (LG) “caution against the fallacy of assuming that that which does not kill statistical significance makes it stronger” (1). We agree with the overall message that it is a fallacy to interpret observed effect size estimates in small samples as accurate estimates of population effect sizes.  We think it is helpful to recognize the key role of statistical power in significance testing.  If studies have less than 50% power, effect sizes must be inflated to be significant. Thus, all observed effect sizes in these studies are inflated.  Once power is greater than 50%, it is possible to obtain significance with observed effect sizes that underestimate the population effect size. However, even with 80% power, the probability of overestimation is 62.5%. [corrected]. As studies with small samples and small effect sizes often have less than 50% power (2), we can safely assume that observed effect sizes overestimate the population effect size. The best way to make claims about effect sizes in small samples is to avoid interpreting the point estimate and to interpret the 95% confidence interval. It will often show that significant large effect sizes in small samples have wide confidence intervals that also include values close to zero, which shows that any strong claims about effect sizes in small samples are a fallacy (3).

Although we agree with Loken and Gelman’s general message, we believe that their article may have created some confusion about the effect of random measurement error in small samples with small effect sizes when they wrote “In a low-noise setting, the theoretical results of Hausman and others correctly show that measurement error will attenuate coefficient estimates. But we can demonstrate with a simple exercise that the opposite occurs in the presence of high noise and selection on statistical significance” (p. 584).  We both read this sentence as suggesting that under the specified conditions random error may produce even more inflated estimates than perfectly reliable measure. We show that this interpretation of their sentence would be incorrect and that random measurement error always leads to an underestimation of observed effect sizes, even if effect sizes are selected for significance. We demonstrate this fact with a simple equation that shows that true power before selection for significance is monotonically related to observed power after selection for significance. As random measurement error always attenuates population effect sizes, the monotonic relationship implies that observed effect sizes with unreliable measures are also always attenuated.  We provide the formula and R-Code in a Supplement. Here we just give a brief description of the steps that are involved in predicting the effect of measurement error on observed effect sizes after selection for significance.

The effect of random measurement error on population effect sizes is well known. Random measurement error adds variance to the observed measures X and Y, which lowers the observable correlation between two measures. Random error also increases the sampling error. As the non-central t-value is the proportion of these two parameters, it follows that random measurement error always attenuates power. Without selection for significance, median observed effect sizes are unbiased estimates of population effect sizes and median observed power matches true power (4,5). However, with selection for significance, non-significant results with low observed power estimates are excluded and median observed power is inflated. The amount of inflation is proportional to true power. With high power, most results are significant and inflation is small. With low power, most results are non-significant and inflation is large.

Schimmack developed a formula that specifies the relationship between true power and median observed power after selection for significance (6). Figure 1 shows that median observed power after selection for significant is a monotonic function of true power.  It is straightforward to transform inflated median observed power into median observed effect sizes.  We applied this approach to Locken and Gelman’s simulation with a true population correlation of r = .15. We changed the range of sample sizes from 50 to 3050 to 25 to 1000 because this range provides a better picture of the effect of small samples on the results. We also increased the range of reliabilities to show that the results hold across a wide range of reliabilities. Figure 2 shows that random error always attenuates observed effect sizes, even after selection for significance in small samples. However, the effect is non-linear and in small samples with small effects, observed effect sizes are nearly identical for different levels of unreliability. The reason is that in studies with low power, most of the observed effect is driven by the noise in the data and it is irrelevant whether the noise is due to measurement error or unexplained reliable variance.

In conclusion, we believe that our commentary clarifies how random measurement error contributes to the replication crisis.  Consistent with classic test theory, random measurement error always attenuates population effect sizes. This reduces statistical power to obtain significant results. These non-significant results typically remain unreported. The selective reporting of significant results leads to the publication of inflated effect size estimates. It would be a fallacy to consider these effect size estimates reliable and unbiased estimates of population effect sizes and to expect that an exact replication study would also produce a significant result.  The reason is that replicability is determined by true power and observed power is systematically inflated by selection for significance.  Our commentary also provides researchers with a tool to correct for the inflation by selection for significance. The function in Figure 1 can be used to deflate observed effect sizes. These deflated observed effect sizes provide more realistic estimates of population effect sizes when selection bias is present. The same approach can also be used to correct effect size estimates in meta-analyses (7).

References

1. Loken, E., & Gelman, A. (2017). Measurement error and the replication crisis. Science,

355 (6325), 584-585. [doi: 10.1126/science.aal3618]

2. Cohen, J. (1962). The statistical power of abnormal-social psychological research: A review. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 65, 145-153, http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h004518

3. Cohen, J. (1994). The earth is round (p < .05). American Psychologist, 49, 997-1003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.49.12.99

4. Schimmack, U. (2012). The ironic effect of significant results on the credibility of multiple-study articles. Psychological Methods, 17(4), 551-566. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0029487

5. Schimmack, U. (2016). A revised introduction to the R-Index. https://replicationindex.wordpress.com/2016/01/31/a-revised-introduction-to-the-r-index

6. Schimmack, U. (2017). How selection for significance influences observed power. https://replicationindex.wordpress.com/2017/02/21/how-selection-for-significance-influences-observed-power/

7. van Assen, M.A., van Aert, R.C., Wicherts, J.M. (2015). Meta-analysis using effect size distributions of only statistically significant studies. Psychological Methods, 293-309. doi: 10.1037/met0000025.

################################################################

#### R-CODE ###

################################################################

### sample sizes

N = seq(25,500,5)

### true population correlation

true.pop.r = .15

### reliability

rel = 1-seq(0,.9,.20)

### create matrix of population correlations between measures X and Y.

obs.pop.r = matrix(rep(true.pop.r*rel),length(N),length(rel),byrow=TRUE)

### create a matching matrix of sample sizes

N = matrix(rep(N),length(N),length(rel))

### compute non-central t-values

ncp.t = obs.pop.r / ( (1-obs.pop.r^2)/(sqrt(N – 2)))

### compute true power

true.power = pt(ncp.t,N-2,qt(.975,N-2))

###  Get Inflated Observed Power After Selection for Significance

inf.obs.pow = pnorm(qnorm(true.power/2+(1-true.power),qnorm(true.power,qnorm(.975))),qnorm(.975))

### Transform Into Inflated Observed t-values

inf.obs.t = qt(inf.obs.pow,N-2,qt(.975,N-2))

### Transform inflated observed t-values into inflated observed effect sizes

inf.obs.es = (sqrt(N + 4*inf.obs.t^2 -2) – sqrt(N – 2))/(2*inf.obs.t)

### Set parameters for Figure

x.min = 0

x.max = 500

y.min = 0.10

y.max = 0.45

ylab = “Inflated Observed Effect Size”

title = “Effect of Selection for Significance on Observed Effect Size”

### Create Figure

for (i in 1:length(rel)) {

print(i)

plot(N[,1],inf.obs.es[,i],type=”l”,xlim=c(x.min,x.max),ylim=c(y.min,y.max),col=col[i],xlab=”Sample Size”,ylab=”Median Observed Effect Size After Selection for Significance”,lwd=3,main=title)

segments(x0 = 600,y0 = y.max-.05-i*.02, x1 = 650,col=col[i], lwd=5)

text(730,y.max-.05-i*.02,paste0(“Rel = “,format(rel[i],nsmall=1)))

par(new=TRUE)

}

abline(h = .15,lty=2)

##################### THE END #################################

# How Selection for Significance Influences Observed Power

Two years ago, I posted an Excel spreadsheet to help people to understand the concept of true power, observed power, and how selection for significance inflates observed power. Two years have gone by and I have learned R. It is time to update the post.

There is no mathematical formula to correct observed power for inflation to solve for true power. This was partially the reason why I created the R-Index, which is an index of true power, but not an estimate of true power.  This has led to some confusion and misinterpretation of the R-Index (Disjointed Thought blog post).

However, it is possible to predict median observed power given true power and selection for statistical significance.  To use this method for real data with observed median power of only significant results, one can simply generate a range of true power values, generate the predicted median observed power and then pick the true power value with the smallest discrepancy between median observed power and simulated inflated power estimates. This approach is essentially the same as the approach used by pcurve and puniform, which only
differ in the criterion that is being minimized.

Here is the r-code for the conversion of true.power into the predicted observed power after selection for significance.

true.power = seq(.01,.99,.01)
obs.pow = pnorm(qnorm(true.power/2+(1-true.power),qnorm(true.power,z.crit)),z.crit)

And here is a pretty picture of the relationship between true power and inflated observed power.  As we can see, there is more inflation for low true power because observed power after selection for significance has to be greater than 50%.  With alpha = .05 (two-tailed), when the null-hypothesis is true, inflated observed power is 61%.   Thus, an observed median power of 61% for only significant results supports the null-hypothesis.  With true power of 50%, observed power is inflated to 75%.  For high true power, the inflation is relatively small. With the recommended true power of 80%, median observed power for only significant results is 86%.

Observed power is easy to calculate from reported test statistics. The first step is to compute the exact two-tailed p-value.  These p-values can then be converted into observed power estimates using the standard normal distribution.

z.crit = qnorm(.975)
Obs.power = pnorm(qnorm(1-p/2),z.crit)

If there is selection for significance, you can use the previous formula to convert this observed power estimate into an estimate of true power.

This method assumes that (a) significant results are representative of the distribution and there are no additional biases (no p-hacking) and (b) all studies have the same or similar power.  This method does not work for heterogeneous sets of studies.

P.S.  It is possible to proof the formula that transforms true power into median observed power.  Another way to verify that the formula is correct is to confirm the predicted values with a simulation study.

Here is the code to run the simulation study:

n.sim = 100000
z.crit = qnorm(.975)
true.power = seq(.01,.99,.01)
obs.pow.sim = c()
for (i in 1:length(true.power)) {
z.sim = rnorm(n.sim,qnorm(true.power[i],z.crit))
med.z.sig = median(z.sim[z.sim > z.crit])
obs.pow.sim = c(obs.pow.sim,pnorm(med.z.sig,z.crit))
}
obs.pow.sim

obs.pow = pnorm(qnorm(true.power/2+(1-true.power),qnorm(true.power,z.crit)),z.crit)
obs.pow
cbind(true.power,obs.pow.sim,obs.pow)
plot(obs.pow.sim,obs.pow)

# Dr. Ulrich Schimmack’s Blog about Replicability

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For generalization, psychologists must finally rely, as has been done in all the older sciences, on replication (Cohen, 1994).

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DEFINITION OF REPLICABILITY:  In empirical studies with random error variance replicability refers to the probability of a study with a significant result to produce a significant result again in an exact replication study of the first study using the same sample size and significance criterion.

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2017 Blog Posts:

(October, 24, 2017)
Preliminary 2017 Replicability Rankings of 104 Psychology Journals

(September 4, 2017)
The Power of the Pen Paradigm: A Replicability Analysis

(February, 2, 2017)
Reconstruction of a Train Wreck: How Priming Research Went off the Rails

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REPLICABILITY REPORTS:  Examining the replicability of research topics

RR No1. (April 19, 2016)  Is ego-depletion a replicable effect?
RR No2. (May 21, 2016) Do mating primes have replicable effects on behavior?
RR No3. (September 4, 2017) The power of the pen paradigm: A replicability analysis

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# TOP TEN LIST

1.  Preliminary 2017  Replicability Rankings of 104 Psychology Journals
Rankings of 104 Psychology Journals according to the average replicability of a published significant result. Also includes detailed analysis of time trends in replicability from 2010 to 2017, and a comparison of psychological disciplines (cognitive, clinical, social, developmental, biological).

2.  Z-Curve: Estimating replicability for sets of studies with heterogeneous power (e.g., Journals, Departments, Labs)
This post presented the first replicability ranking and explains the methodology that is used to estimate the typical power of a significant result published in a journal.  The post provides an explanation of the new method to estimate observed power based on the distribution of test statistics converted into absolute z-scores.  The method has been developed further to estimate power for a wider range of z-scores by developing a model that allows for heterogeneity in power across tests.  A description of the new method will be published when extensive simulation studies are completed.

3. An Introduction to the R-Index
The R-Index can be used to predict whether a set of published results will replicate in a set of exact replication studies. It combines information about the observed power of the original studies with information about the amount of inflation in observed power due to publication bias (R-Index = Observed Median Power – Inflation). The R-Index has predicted the outcome of actual replication studies.

4.  The Test of Insufficient Variance (TIVA)
The Test of Insufficient Variance is the most powerful test of publication bias and/or dishonest reporting practices. It can be used even if only two independent statistical results are available, although power to detect bias increases with the number of studies. After converting test results into z-scores, z-scores are expected to have a variance of one.   Unless power is very high, some of these z-scores will not be statistically significant (z .05 two-tailed).  If these non-significant results are missing, the variance shrinks, and TIVA detects that the variance is insufficient.  The observed variance is compared against the expected variance of 1 with a left-tailed chi-square test. The usefulness of TIVA is illustrated with Bem’s (2011) “Feeling the Future” data.

5.  MOST VIEWED POST (with comment by Noble Laureate Daniel Kahneman)
Reconstruction of a Train Wreck: How Priming Research Went off the Rails
This blog post examines the replicability of priming studies cited in Daniel Kahneman’s popular book “Thinking fast and slow.”   The results suggest that many of the cited findings are difficult to replicate.

6. How robust are Stereotype-Threat Effects on Women’s Math Performance?
Stereotype-threat has been used by social psychologists to explain gender differences in math performance. Accordingly, the stereotype that men are better at math than women is threatening to women and threat leads to lower performance.  This theory has produced a large number of studies, but a recent meta-analysis showed that the literature suffers from publication bias and dishonest reporting.  After correcting for these effects, the stereotype-threat effect was negligible.  This blog post shows a low R-Index for the first article that appeared to provide strong support for stereotype-threat.  These results show that the R-Index can warn readers and researchers that reported results are too good to be true.

7.  An attempt at explaining null-hypothesis testing and statistical power with 1 figure and 1500 words.   Null-hypothesis significance testing is old, widely used, and confusing. Many false claims have been used to suggest that NHST is a flawed statistical method. Others argue that the method is fine, but often misunderstood. Here I try to explain NHST and why it is important to consider power (type-II errors) using a picture from the free software GPower.

8.  The Problem with Bayesian Null-Hypothesis Testing
Some Bayesian statisticians have proposed Bayes-Factors to provide evidence for a Null-Hypothesis (i.e., there is no effect).  They used Bem’s (2011) “Feeling the Future” data to argue that Bayes-Factors would have demonstrated that extra-sensory perception does not exist.  This blog post shows that Bayes-Factors depend on the specification of the alternative hypothesis and that support for the null-hypothesis is often obtained by choosing an unrealistic alternative hypothesis (e.g., there is a 25% probability that effect size is greater than one standard deviation, d > 1).  As a result, Bayes-Factors can favor the null-hypothesis when there is an effect, but the effect size is small (d = .2).  A Bayes-Factor in favor of the null is more appropriately interpreted as evidence that the alternative hypothesis needs to decrease the probabilities assigned to large effect sizes. The post also shows that Bayes-Factors based on a meta-analysis of Bem’s data provide misleading evidence that an effect is present because Bayesian statistics do not take publication bias and dishonest reporting practices into account.

9. Hidden figures: Replication failures in the stereotype threat literature.  A widespread problem is that failed replication studies are often not published. This blog post shows that another problem is that failed replication studies are ignored even when they are published.  Selective publishing of confirmatory results undermines the credibility of science and claims about the importance of stereotype threat to explain gender differences in mathematics.

10. My journey towards estimation of replicability.  In this blog post I explain how I got interested in statistical power and replicability and how I developed statistical methods to reveal selection bias and to estimate replicability.

# 2015 Replicability Ranking of 100+ Psychology Journals

Replicability rankings of psychology journals differs from traditional rankings based on impact factors (citation rates) and other measures of popularity and prestige. Replicability rankings use the test statistics in the results sections of empirical articles to estimate the average power of statistical tests in a journal. Higher average power means that the results published in a journal have a higher probability to produce a significant result in an exact replication study and a lower probability of being false-positive results.

The rankings are based on statistically significant results only (p < .05, two-tailed) because only statistically significant results can be used to interpret a result as evidence for an effect and against the null-hypothesis.  Published non-significant results are useful for meta-analysis and follow-up studies, but they provide insufficient information to draw statistical inferences.

The average power across the 105 psychology journals used for this ranking is 70%. This means that a representative sample of significant results in exact replication studies is expected to produce 70% significant results. The rankings for 2015 show variability across journals with average power estimates ranging from 84% to 54%.  A factor analysis of annual estimates for 2010-2015 showed that random year-to-year variability accounts for 2/3 of the variance and that 1/3 is explained by stable differences across journals.

The Journal Names are linked to figures that show the powergraphs of a journal for the years 2010-2014 and 2015. The figures provide additional information about the number of tests used, confidence intervals around the average estimate, and power estimates that estimate power including non-significant results even if these are not reported (the file-drawer).

 Rank Journal 2010/14 2015 1 Social Indicators Research 81 84 2 Journal of Happiness Studies 81 83 3 Journal of Comparative Psychology 72 83 4 International Journal of Psychology 80 81 5 Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 78 81 6 Child Psychiatry and Human Development 75 81 7 Psychonomic Review and Bulletin 72 80 8 Journal of Personality 72 79 9 Journal of Vocational Behavior 79 78 10 British Journal of Developmental Psychology 75 78 11 Journal of Counseling Psychology 72 78 12 Cognitve Development 69 78 13 JPSP: Personality Processes and Individual Differences 65 78 14 Journal of Research in Personality 75 77 15 Depression & Anxiety 74 77 16 Asian Journal of Social Psychology 73 77 17 Personnel Psychology 78 76 18 Personality and Individual Differences 74 76 19 Personal Relationships 70 76 20 Cognitive Science 77 75 21 Memory and Cognition 73 75 22 Early Human Development 71 75 23 Journal of Sexual Medicine 76 74 24 Journal of Applied Social Psychology 74 74 25 Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition 74 74 26 Journal of Youth and Adolescence 72 74 27 Social Psychology 71 74 28 Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 74 73 29 Cognition and Emotion 72 73 30 Journal of Affective Disorders 71 73 31 Attention, Perception and Psychophysics 71 73 32 Evolution & Human Behavior 68 73 33 Developmental Science 68 73 34 Schizophrenia Research 66 73 35 Achive of Sexual Behavior 76 72 36 Pain 74 72 37 Acta Psychologica 72 72 38 Cognition 72 72 39 Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 72 72 40 Aggressive Behavior 72 72 41 Journal of Social Psychology 72 72 42 Behaviour Research and Therapy 70 72 43 Frontiers in Psychology 70 72 44 Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 70 72 45 Child Development 69 72 46 Epilepsy & Behavior 75 71 47 Journal of Child and Family Studies 72 71 48 Psychology of Music 71 71 49 Psychology and Aging 71 71 50 Journal of Memory and Language 69 71 51 Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 69 71 52 Psychotherapy 78 70 53 Developmental Psychology 71 70 54 Behavior Therapy 69 70 55 Judgment and Decision Making 68 70 56 Behavioral Brain Research 68 70 57 Social Psychology and Personality Science 62 70 58 Political Psychology 75 69 59 Cognitive Psychology 74 69 60 Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 69 69 61 Appetite 69 69 62 Motivation and Emotion 69 69 63 Sex Roles 68 69 64 Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 68 69 65 Journal of Applied Psychology 67 69 66 Behavioral Neuroscience 67 69 67 Psychological Science 67 68 68 Emotion 67 68 69 Developmental Psychobiology 66 68 70 European Journal of Social Psychology 65 68 71 Biological Psychology 65 68 72 British Journal of Social Psychology 64 68 73 JPSP: Attitudes & Social Cognition 62 68 74 Animal Behavior 69 67 75 Psychophysiology 67 67 76 Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 66 67 77 Journal of Research on Adolescence 75 66 78 Journal of Educational Psychology 74 66 79 Clinical Psychological Science 69 66 80 Consciousness and Cognition 69 66 81 The Journal of Positive Psychology 65 66 82 Hormones & Behavior 64 66 83 Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescence Psychology 62 66 84 Journal of Gerontology: Series B 72 65 85 Psychological Medicine 66 65 86 Personalit and Social Psychology Bulletin 64 64 87 Infancy 61 64 88 Memory 75 63 89 Law and Human Behavior 70 63 90 Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 70 63 91 Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 69 63 92 Cortex 67 63 93 Journal of Abnormal Psychology 64 63 94 Journal of Consumer Psychology 60 63 95 Psychology of Violence 71 62 96 Psychoneuroendocrinology 63 62 97 Health Psychology 68 61 98 Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 59 61 99 JPSP: Interpersonal Relationships and Group Processes 60 60 100 Social Cognition 65 59 101 Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 63 58 102 European Journal of Personality 72 57 103 Journal of Family Psychology 60 57 104 Social Development 75 55 105 Annals of Behavioral Medicine 65 54 106 Self and Identity 63 54

# The Abuse of Hoenig and Heisey: A Justification of Power Calculations with Observed Effect Sizes

In 2001, Hoenig and Heisey wrote an influential article, titled “The Abuse of Power: The Persuasive Fallacy of Power Calculations For Data Analysis.”  The article has been cited over 500 times and it is commonly cited as a reference to claim that it is a fallacy to use observed effect sizes to compute statistical power.

In this post, I provide a brief summary of Hoenig and Heisey’s argument. The summary shows that Hoenig and Heisey were concerned with the practice of assessing the statistical power of a single test based on the observed effect size for this effect. I agree that it is often not informative to do so (unless the result is power = .999). However, the article is often cited to suggest that the use of observed effect sizes in power calculations is fundamentally flawed. I show that this statement is false.

The abstract of the article makes it clear that Hoenig and Heisey focused on the estimation of power for a single statistical test. “There is also a large literature advocating that power calculations be made whenever one performs a statistical test of a hypothesis and one obtains a statistically nonsignificant result” (page 1). The abstract informs readers that this practice is fundamentally flawed. “This approach, which appears in various forms, is fundamentally flawed. We document that the problem is extensive and present arguments to demonstrate the flaw in the logic” (p. 1).

Given that method articles can be difficult to read, it is possible that the misinterpretation of Hoenig and Heisey is the result of relying on the term “fundamentally flawed” in the abstract. However, some passages in the article are also ambiguous. In the Introduction Hoenig and Heisey write “we describe the flaws in trying to use power calculations for data-analytic purposes” (p. 1). It is not clear what purposes are left for power calculations if they cannot be used for data-analytic purposes. Later on, they write more forcefully “A number of authors have noted that observed power may not be especially useful, but to our knowledge a fatal logical flaw has gone largely unnoticed.” (p. 2). So readers cannot be blamed entirely if they believed that calculations of observed power are fundamentally flawed. This conclusion is often implied in Hoenig and Heisey’s writing, which is influenced by their broader dislike of hypothesis testing  in general.

The main valid argument that Hoenig and Heisey make is that power analysis is based on the unknown population effect size and that effect sizes in a particular sample are contaminated with sampling error.  As p-values and power estimates depend on the observed effect size, they are also influenced by random sampling error.

In a special case, when true power is 50%, the p-value matches the significance criterion. If sampling error leads to an underestimation of the true effect size, the p-value will be non-significant and the power estimate will be less than 50%. When sampling error inflates the observed effect size, p-values will be significant and power will be above 50%.

It is therefore impossible to find scenarios where observed power is high (80%) and a result is not significant, p > .05, or where observed power is low (20%) and a result is significant, p < .05.  As a result, it is not possible to use observed power to decide whether a non-significant result was obtained because power was low or because power was high but the effect does not exist.

In fact, a simple mathematical formula can be used to transform p-values into observed power and vice versa (I actually got the idea of using p-values to estimate power from Hoenig and Heisey’s article).  Given this perfect dependence between the two statistics, observed power cannot add additional information to the interpretation of a p-value.

This central argument is valid and it does mean that it is inappropriate to use the observed effect size of a statistical test to draw inferences about the statistical power of a significance test for the same effect (N = 1). Similarly, one would not rely on a single data point to draw inferences about the mean of a population.

However, it is common practice to aggregate original data points or to aggregated effect sizes of multiple studies to obtain more precise estimates of the mean in a population or the mean effect size, respectively. Thus, the interesting question is whether Hoenig and Heisey’s (2001) article contains any arguments that would undermine the aggregation of power estimates to obtain an estimate of the typical power for a set of studies. The answer is no. Hoenig and Heisey do not consider a meta-analysis of observed power in their discussion and their discussion of observed power does not contain arguments that would undermine the validity of a meta-analysis of post-hoc power estimates.

A meta-analysis of observed power can be extremely useful to check whether researchers’ a priori power analysis provide reasonable estimates of the actual power of their studies.

Assume that researchers in a particular field have to demonstrate that their studies have 80% power to produce significant results when an important effect is present because conducting studies with less power would be a waste of resources (although some granting agencies require power analyses, these power analyses are rarely taken seriously, so I consider this a hypothetical example).

Assume that researchers comply and submit a priori power analysis with effect sizes that are considered to be sufficiently meaningful. For example, an effect of half-a-standard deviation (Cohen’s d = .50) might look reasonable large to be meaningful. Researchers submit their grant applications with a prior power analysis that produce 80% power with an effect size of d = .50. Based on the power analysis, researchers request funding for 128 participants. A researcher plans four studies and needs \$50 for each participant. The total budget is \$25,600.

When the research project is completed, all four studies produced non-significant results. The observed standardized effect sizes were 0, .20, .25, and .15. Is it really impossible to estimate the realized power in these studies based on the observed effect sizes? No. It is common practice to conduct a meta-analysis of observed effect sizes to get a better estimate of the (average) population effect size. In this example, the average effect size across the four studies is d = .15. It is also possible to show that the average effect size in these four studies is significantly different from the effect size that was used for the a priori power calculation (M1 = .15, M2 = .50, Mdiff = .35, SE = 1/sqrt(512) = .044, t = .35 / .044 = 7.92, p < 1e-13). Using the more realistic effect size estimate that is based on actual empirical data rather than wishful thinking, the post-hoc power analysis yields a power estimate of 13%. The probability of obtaining non-significant results in all four studies is 57%. Thus, it is not surprising that the studies produced non-significant results.  In this example, a post-hoc power analysis with observed effect sizes provides valuable information about the planning of future studies in this line of research. Either effect sizes of this magnitude are not important enough and research should be abandoned or effect sizes of this magnitude still have important practical implications and future studies should be planned on the basis of a priori power analysis with more realistic effect sizes.

Another valuable application of observed power analysis is the detection of publication bias and questionable research practices (Ioannidis and Trikalinos; 2007), Schimmack, 2012) and for estimating the replicability of statistical results published in scientific journals (Schimmack, 2015).

In conclusion, the article by Hoenig and Heisey is often used as a reference to argue that observed effect sizes should not be used for power analysis.  This post clarifies that this practice is not meaningful for a single statistical test, but that it can be done for larger samples of studies.

# “Do Studies of Statistical Power Have an Effect on the Power of Studies?” by Peter Sedlmeier and Gerg Giegerenzer

The article with the witty title “Do Studies of Statistical Power Have an Effect on the Power of Studies?” builds on Cohen’s (1962) seminal power analysis of psychological research.

The main point of the article can be summarized in one word: No. Statistical power has not increased after Cohen published his finding that statistical power is low.

One important contribution of the article was a meta-analysis of power analyses that applied Cohen’s method to a variety of different journals. The table below shows that power estimates vary by journal assuming that the effect size was medium according to Cohen’s criteria of small, medium, and large effect sizes. The studies are sorted by power estimates from the highest to the lowest value, which provides a power ranking of journals based on Cohen’s method. I also included the results of Sedlmeier and Giegerenzer’s power analysis of the 1984 volume of the Journal of Abnormal Psychology (the Journal of Social and Abnormal Psychology was split into Journal of Abnormal Psychology and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology). I used the mean power (50%) rather than median power (44%) because the mean power is consistent with the predicted success rate in the limit. In contrast, the median will underestimate the success rate in a set of studies with heterogeneous effect sizes.

JOURNAL TITLE YEAR Power%
Journal of Marketing Research 1981 89
American Sociological Review 1974 84
Journalism Quarterly, The Journal of Broadcasting 1976 76
American Journal of Educational Psychology 1972 72
Journal of Research in Teaching 1972 71
Journal of Applied Psychology 1976 67
Journal of Communication 1973 56
The Research Quarterly 1972 52
Journal of Abnormal Psychology 1984 50
Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 1962 48
American Speech and Hearing Research & Journal of Communication Disorders 1975 44
Counseler Education and Supervision 1973 37

The table shows that there is tremendous variability in power estimates for different journals ranging from as high as 89% (9 out of 10 studies will produce a significant result when an effect is present) to the lowest estimate of  37% power (only 1 out of 3 studies will produce a significant result when an effect is present).

The table also shows that the Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology and its successor the Journal of Abnormal Psychology yielded nearly identical power estimates. This finding is the key finding that provides empirical support for the claim that power in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology has not increased over time.

The average power estimate for all journals in the table is 62% (median 61%).  The list of journals is not a representative set of journals and few journals are core psychology journals. Thus, the average power may be different if a representative set of journals had been used.

The average for the three core psychology journals (JASP & JAbnPsy,  JAP, AJEduPsy) is 67% (median = 63%) is slightly higher. The latter estimate is likely to be closer to the typical power in psychology in general rather than the prominently featured estimates based on the Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Power could be lower in this journal because it is more difficult to recruit patients with a specific disorder than participants from undergraduate classes. However, only more rigorous studies of power for a broader range of journals and more years can provide more conclusive answers about the typical power of a single statistical test in a psychology journal.

The article also contains some important theoretical discussions about the importance of power in psychological research. One important issue concerns the treatment of multiple comparisons. For example, a multi-factorial design produces an exponential number of statistical comparisons. With two conditions, there is only one comparison. With three conditions, there are three comparisons (C1 vs. C2, C1 vs. C3, and C2 vs. C3). With 5 conditions, there are 10 comparisons. Standard statistical methods often correct for these multiple comparisons. One consequence of this correction for multiple comparisons is that the power of each statistical test decreases. An effect that would be significant in a simple comparison of two conditions would not be significant if this test is part of a series of tests.

Sedlmeier and Giegerenzer used the standard criterion of p < .05 (two-tailed) for their main power analysis and for the comparison with Cohen’s results. However, many articles presented results using a more stringent criterion of significance. If the criterion used by authors would have been used for the power analysis, power decreased further. About 50% of all articles used an adjusted criterion value and if the adjusted criterion value was used power was only 37%.

Sedlmeier and Giegerenzer also found another remarkable difference between articles in 1960 and in 1984. Most articles in 1960 reported the results of a single study. In 1984 many articles reported results from two or more studies. Sedlmeier and Giegerenzer do not discuss the statistical implications of this change in publication practices. Schimmack (2012) introduced the concept of total power to highlight the problem of publishing articles that contain multiple studies with modest power. If studies are used to provide empirical support for an effect, studies have to show a significant effect. For example, Study 1 shows an effect with female participants. Study 2 examines whether the effect can also be demonstrated with male participants. If Study 2 produces a non-significant result, it is not clear how this finding should be interpreted. It may show that the effect does not exist for men. It may show that the first result was just a fluke finding due to sampling error. Or it may show that the effect exists equally for men and women but studies had only 50% power to produce a significant result. In this case, it is expected that one study will produce a significant result and one will produce a non-significant result, but in the long-run significant results are equally likely with male or female participants. Given the difficulty of interpreting a non-significant result, it would be important to conduct a more powerful study that examines gender differences in a more powerful study with more female and male participants. However, this is not what researchers do. Rather, multiple study articles contain only the studies that produced significant results. The rate of successful studies in psychology journals is over 90% (Sterling et al., 1995). However, this outcome is extremely likely in multiple studies where studies have only 50% power to get a significant result in a single attempt. For each additional attempt, the probability to obtain only significant results decreases exponentially (1 Study, 50%, 2 Studies 25%, 3 Studies 12.5%, 4 Studies 6.75%).

The fact that researchers only publish studies that worked is well-known in the research community. Many researchers believe that this is an acceptable scientific practice. However, consumers of scientific research may have a different opinion about this practice. Publishing only studies that produced the desired outcome is akin to a fund manager that only publishes the return rate of funds that gained money and excludes funds with losses. Would you trust this manager to take care of your retirement? It is also akin to a gambler that only remembers winnings. Would you marry a gambler who believes that gambling is ok because you can earn money that way?

I personally do not trust obviously biased information. So, when researchers present 5 studies with significant results, I wonder whether they really had the statistical power to produce these results or whether they simply did not publish results that failed to confirm their claims. To answer this question it is essential to estimate the actual power of individual studies to produce significant results; that is, it is necessary to estimate the typical power in this field, of this researcher, or in the journal that published the results.

In conclusion, Sedlmeier and Gigerenzer made an important contribution to the literature by providing the first power-ranking of scientific journals and the first temporal analyses of time trends in power. Although they probably hoped that their scientific study of power would lead to an increase in statistical power, the general consensus is that their article failed to change scientific practices in psychology. In fact, some journals required more and more studies as evidence for an effect (some articles contain 9 studies) without any indication that researchers increased power to ensure that their studies could actually provide significant results for their hypotheses. Moreover, the topic of statistical power remained neglected in the training of future psychologists.

I recommend Sedlmeier and Gigerenzer’s article as essential reading for anybody interested in improving the credibility of psychology as a rigorous empirical science.

As always, comments (positive or negative) are always welcome.